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SHahrisabz

 

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SHAHRISABZ

Ak - Saray

Ak-Saray, literally "White Palace", but the term "ac" and has a figurative meaning - a noble, majestic. This palace was laid in the foretold by astrologers "happy hour" after the capture of Timur in 1379 the capital of Khorezm Urgench (now Kunia Urgench, Turkmenistan), where in addition to the captured rich extraction were sent to Shakhrisabz master builders. Start of construction - early spring 1380, the palace was completed in 1396 primarily to, but finishing work, according to Clavijo, Yeshe continued in 1404 in the creation of the palace, among the Khorezm masters participated Maverannakhra masters and masters were brought by Tamerlane from other countries. Thus, on the mosaic wiring the main portal of the palace found twice repeated the name of the master facing Iran Muhammad Yusuf Al Tabrizi. What remains are the pillars of the portal.

Archaeological excavations south of the entrance portal revealed adjoining rich tile lining the floor. Above him in the process of excavations revealed a large number of fragments of architectural decoration, majolica, carved marble, a combination of carved terra cotta with Kashina mosaic. Discovered as a small square pool with a tile lining its bottom designed for sacred fish.
In fact, from the Ak-Saray preserved only the foundations of the entrance portal, but they leave a lasting impression. Once I was transferred between the arch span of 22 meters themselves as pillars were on the edges flanked guldastami - a round, faceted on the strong foundations of the tower. Inside guldasty were spiral staircases to be lifted up, utility rooms. The towers survived now up to 38 m in height, but initially they reach fifty meters.

In the gable wall of the portal was located arched entrance. In the decorative ornamentation are used in all types of polychrome facing - glazed bricks and majolica, carved composing a mosaic. They form the ornaments from large to melkouzornyh, filled with geometrical, plant epigraphic character, with extensive use of colorful scales. Architecture Portal sustained in large forms, the volumes are simple, concise silhouette, and a breakdown of the architectural techniques based on the comparison of large and small arched forms are making a visual scale series.
The decor - with all the richness of ornamental motifs and color saturation - strict subordination geometrizmu architectural breakdown.

Dorus - Saodat
Dorus Saodat is a cult-memorial, created during construction of the Ak-Saray. Its construction was started in 1379 in the construction, along with local artists participated wizard removed from Khorezm. According to the concept of Timur, in his hometown was conceived to a family tomb. In 1376 in Shahrisabz was born and buried his untimely death, beloved eldest son Jehangir. Later the funeral of another of his son Omarsheyha.
The idea of facing the architects was to create a monumental structure, which combine harmoniously to the tomb, a general commemoration hall - ziarathanu, memorial mosque, rooms for the clergy to come to worship, to the recitation of the Quran. Architects have creatively approached the task. Using a range of traditional architectural forms. they put together their quality in the new combination, moreover, in the grand scale.

The main facade of the building are providing a powerful portal, which is set slightly inferior to the Ak-Saray, and in both abutments located on the mausoleum. Now preserved only the north. Central entrance led into the courtyard. On the main axis of its preserved ceremonial crypt, which once towered over the dome mausoleum. According to archaeological excavations on both sides of it there were two large rooms. Under one of them identified a crypt - thus, there was another mausoleum. Excavations have established that the organizing was a central element of the courtyard. That is, it was characteristic of the XIV-XV centuries. type of x and r and r e, were erected at the burial of a prominent cleric, next to which was believed to be buried members of the ruling house.

From an extensive set of past-Dorus Saodat to this day reached only left stable entrance portal, which includes the mausoleum of Jehangir and the archaeological remains of buildings. Mausoleum of Jehangir includes high square room with arched niches on the axes. Trehkupolnaya system is original to overlap: the high internal decorative dome, made of Gancia and forth to set into the brickwork wooden "fingers". Then there is a second internal constructive dome of brick. And above it - crowning the outer tent-conical dome, raised on faceted drum and fortified from the inside ribs. This design is not typical of the architecture of Maurya, but has a prototype in the mausoleum Turabek Khanum 60-ies. XIV century. in Old Urgench (now Turkmenistan). However, the overall composition and the details of the mausoleum Dzhahengira give another option. Decor him, like most low-key pillars - mostly ornamental passages from glazurovannyeh bricks and majolica and mosaic-like blotches. In the mausoleum there is a crypt.

Aforementioned front axle vast tomb complex was designed for the most Timur. Fate decreed otherwise, and he was buried in a mausoleum in Samarkand Gur Emir.
Excavations revealed on both sides of the central nadsklepnogo room, two little yield to the size related - one of them was also the mausoleum, while the other was or ziarathanoy or memorial mosque. In the process of excavation, to the east of the mausoleum of Jehangir, one more tomb, then the floor and the remains of the wall octagonal room that stretches west to the main group, which identified otmostki floors, slab gravestones. The results of excavations revealed a complete layout khazir which was conserved at the level of the cap. In their remaining balances Dorus Saodat part of the outstanding architectural monuments of the time of Timur.

C l e a n T and m at the river and one of the most luxurious buildings of this type, which is part of the complex. Cross-shaped in plan with deep arched niches on the axes, all he could from floor to ceiling lined with slabs of white marble-like limestone. In the center stands a marble sarcophagus with the lid tilted, which surrounds a carved ornament, but the central field, intended for future epitaph, is left untreated. In the crypt of the original ceiling - it is a slope-tent-dome type Darbaza. On the walls of the contour of the arched niches and their level of foot stretches continuous tape labels, performed exquisite ornamental lettering of inscriptions, which are filled with almond-shaped medallions and carved on the ends of niches.

Dorut - Tilyavat
Almost in the center of Shahrisabz, west of the ensemble Dorus Saodat, stands a group of ancient buildings. They represent the remnants of the former Timurid monument - an ensemble of buildings (places of worship and burials) combined in a single complex called non-Dorut-Tilyavat.
At the end of 1360 his father passed away Timur Taragay, was buried in a small mausoleum of the family. But with the advent to power of Timur in 1370, he ordered the postponement of the body of his father in a place of honor, the dumping of highly revered Sheikh Shahrisabz Kul. According to Ibn-Arabshaha, Timur explained its military and government successes prayer Sheikh Shamsetdina Kul, care Sheikh Zaynutdinov Hayashi and blessings Sayyid Bereke. Sheikh Kul died in 1371 Two years later, at the direction of Timur in his "legs" were placed the remains Taragay. At the tomb of Timur Shamsiddin Kul was faced with slabs of marble oniksovidnogo. Fragments of them, covered with plant-styled ornamentation and inscriptions have been discovered recently by restorers in the clearance tombstones.

Creation of an architectural ensemble at the madrassa Dorut-Tilyavat basically goes back to the reign of Ulugh Beg. First of all, over the tomb of Sheikh, on the remains of an earlier structure, was erected in the dome and m r o l e d. The main entrance to it, facing west, was isolated portal, pylons which are on the continuation of the walls gurkhan. They kept lining brick mosaic in a vertical series of eight-pointed star, lined with blue glazed bricks and arranged into these stars Kufic inscriptions, made blue bricks. Gurhan - square in plan, its walls are four broad arched niche. In the main aisle hung door with a multi-faceted, very nasyshennoy vegetal and epigraphic ornamentation - a masterpiece of woodcarving fifteenth century.